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Freshwater Dips and Seahorses

Occasionally a seahorse hobbyist runs into a situation where a freshwater (FW) dip is indicated. A FW Dip can be used as both a therapeutic and a diagnostic tool. As a therapeutic tool it can help rid the seahorse of ectoparasites on the body, in the oral cavity, as well as in the gills. As a diagnostic tool, observation during the dip will give you a good idea if there is a parasitic load or not. It can also be done prophylactically on new arrivals from suspect sources, on wild caught (WC) specimens or when a tank mate has had known parasitic load. We have been doing FW Dips for over 11 years. We have found that every species we have encountered has handled FW Dips just fine

Not Dwarf Seahorses, Baby Seahorses

Left, Tiger Tail seahorse from MaryG, right Dwarf Seahorse, photo by Felicia McCaulley Regular readers of are aware of my concern over juvenile seahorses being sold far too small and young. It came to my attention recently that sometimes very young juveniles of larger seahorse species are being sold as Dwarf Seahorses Hippocampus zosterae due to the exceptionally small size they are being sold at. This issue came to light by way of the our forum member Maryg. She asked to confirm the species of a couple seahorses sold through her local fish store as dwarf seahorses. The seahorses in question were in fact juvenile Tiger Tail Seahorses Hippocampus comes

Chromis Make Gender Adjustments to Combat Global Warming

A new study from the University of Sydney Australia has found that the Spiny Chromis reef fish can manipulate the gender of their offspring to combat the gender bias created by increasing ocean temperatures. “The research findings are significant because global warming poses a threat to species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), such as reptiles and fish, potentially skewing the sex-ratio of offspring and, consequently, breeding individuals in a population,”said lead author and UTS Chancellor’s Postdoctoral Research Fellow Dr Jennifer Donelson. “A reduction in the proportion of females in the population could be especially damaging because population growth rate is often constrained by female fertility.” A-poly-rubble-copy_0The understanding of how prenatal gender adjustments can be made is a bit of a mystery to scientists but the findings certainly add to the hope that ecosystems will adapt to the changes occurring all over the globe. “Just precisely how our study species, the Spiny Chromis coral reef fish, engineer these amazing adjustments is unknown and is something we are now investigating. What we do know however is that oceans are warming and emerging research is showing the importance of transgenerational plasticity in reducing the negative impacts of climate change on species with TSD.” Read more here!… More:

The Return of Fish Aid in Reef Recovery

Overfishing is one key impact to the decline of coral reefs worldwide and a new study performed by the Wildlife Conservation Society, James Cook University, and The Australian Institute of Marine Science shows just how important fish are to the recovery of areas affected by coastal threats such as overfishing. “Reef fish play a range of important roles in the functioning of coral reef ecosystems, for example by grazing algae and controlling coral-eating invertebrates, that help to maintain the ecosystem as a whole,” said coauthor Nick Graham of James Cook University. 150408131333_1_900x600“By linking fisheries to ecology, we can now make informed statements about ecosystem function at a given level of fish biomass.” Coastal threats such as overfishing have long been adapted to antiquated techniques so the results of this study will improve efficiency for both reef and fishermen. “The finding that gear restrictions, species selection or local customs can also contribute to fish population recovery is compelling. It demonstrates that managers can use a range of different management strategies in areas where it may not be culturally feasible to establish permanent marine reserves,” said coauthor Stacy Jupiter, WCS Melanesia Program Director. Check out the key findings here!… More:

Coastal Activities Making it Harder for Fish to Breathe

New research out of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at James Cook University finds that the impacts of human activities like dredging are making it harder for fish to breathe, and are likely increasing the rates of gill disease amongst coastal reef fish. “Fish gills are in direct contact with their environment and are the first line of defense in the animal’s immune response, which makes them the perfect place to look for damage associated with sediment,” adds co-author of the study Dr Jodie Rummer. 150616093642_1_900x600“Suspended sediments result from flood plumes, coastal agricultural and industrial development and from dredging operations and are increasing in coastal waters worldwide,” says co-author, Dr Amelia Wenger. The study simulated sediment accumulation in the lab and subjected clown fish larvae to increased levels, and what they found might be some what of a duality. “The gills in sediment-exposed larval clownfish fish were congested, exhibiting twice as much mucous of what could be found in clean-water exposed fish,” says study lead author, PhD Student Sybille Hess. Yet Rummer added that”Sediment-exposed fish also increased the number of protective cells on their gills, presumably safeguarding the delicate tissue from the damage that sediment particles could cause.” The findings could mean fish are adapting to the elevated levels of sediment but they most definitely underscore the increased need for awareness as it relates to coastal impacts like dredging and agricultural runoff. Read more here.… More:

Long Island Collecting Log: The tropicals are in

The northern sennet, a close relative of the great barracuda, is usually among the first warm-water species to appear on Long Island each year.

The northern sennet, a close relative of the great barracuda, is usually among the first warm-water species to appear on Long Island each year.

 After a long cold winter and amid disturbing reports that the North Atlantic may be entering a cool phase, I am very happy to report that the first tropical species of the year have made their appearance in Long Island waters.Yesterday, I was joined by an elite team of fish collectors… More:

Red Head Linear Blenny – Ecsenius cf lineatus

Recently, Madagascar has begun to export aquarium fishes. Some species are mostly the same as from other locales, such as Coral Beauty Angelfish (Centropyge bispinosa) and Midas Blenny (Ecsenius midas). One anomaly is the Red Head Linear Blenny (Ecsenius
cf lineatus), which appears to be a species new to science. The genus Ecsenius is a common combtooth blenny found on shallow coral reefs throughout most of the Indo-Pacific, with the exception of Hawaii. These small reef fish are usually omnivores, and usually make great aquarium specimens. Though a handful of the 53 recognized species occur throughout the genus’ range, most species are usually restricted to a small group of islands within a country or body of water, such as the mimic blenny (Ecsenius gravieri), which is restricted to the Red Sea. More:

Rock Flower Anemone Collection! CRAZY HD

My Facebook Page: My Instagram Page: Frost Nguyen AznNutty's SaltwaterConnections These are beautiful rock flower anemones. Frost Nguyen had these at his vendor booth at the CMAS Frag Swap in Chicago. is the world's leading destination for sustainable coral reef farming and the aquarium hobby. We offer a free open forum and reef related news and data to better educate aquarists and further our goals of sustainable reef management.