Tag Archives: fishes

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HLLE and the Activated Carbon Connection

HLLE in an ocean surgeonfish (Acanthurus bahianus) caused by the use of activated carbon. Many different factors have been considered as possible causes of the disease known as Head and Lateral Line Erosion (HLLE)—a condition that typically causes disfiguring tissue erosion on the head and along the sensory lateral line of certain marine fishes. Poor water quality, nutritional deficiencies, protozoa of the genus Hexamita, stray voltage, and activated carbon use are just some of the potential causes that have been floated over the years. However, as Jay Hemdal explains in the following excerpt from his new eBook, The Salt Smart Guide to Preventing, Diagnosing, and Treating Diseases of Marine Fishes, there is now some solid scientific backing to the notion that activated carbon can cause this condition. From Chapter 3: Husbandry, Environment, and Your Fishes’ Health “A relationship between the use of activated carbon in aquariums and the development of HLLE in surgeonfish has been positively shown in two scientific studies. Other than that, no formal studies have been undertaken that identify other causes. However, a multitude of unproven causes have been presented by various people. Commonly, stray electrical currents and vitamin deficiencies are cited as causes, but one of the studies mentioned above ruled these out as common causes

Fish or Fishes? Shoal or School? A Few Fishy Terms Defined

In my nearly two decades as an aquarium writer and editor, I’ve noticed that certain terms routinely used in hobby literature when discussing our fine, finny friends are often a source of confusion to readers. So for today’s post, I thought it might be nice to clarify a few of these terms for those who are curious. What’s the plural of fish? If your answer to this question is either “fish” or “fishes,” you may be correct depending on the context. “Fish” is considered the correct plural form if you’re referring to a group of specimens all belonging to the same species. “Fishes” is the way to go if you’re referring to a group consisting of more than one species. For example, if you have an aquarium housing five specimens of Heniochus diphreutes (the schooling bannerfish), your tank can be said to contain five fish.

Elasmobranch Enthusiasts (Part 1): Modern Husbandry – Space

Blue-spotted Ribbontail Ray (T. lymma)From the ferocious great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) to the graceful white-spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari), Elasmobranchii are a diverse group of boneless fishes that are circumglobal, inhabiting a diverse array of habitats, temperature ranges, salinity, and niches in the world’s oceans and rivers. It is no wonder that these unique creatures, while usually boasting relatively bland coloration compared to the typical teleostei reef fishes, pique the interest of pretty much every hobbyist. This group of fishes definitely has its challenges but, with proper information and species selection, can be kept fairly easily by a moderately skilled aquarist with a generous budget. The space-swim pattern continuum As with every other family of fishes, sharks have a wide range of spacial considerations by species. “Go big or go home” is a decent motto for most species. Length, width, and shape are the most important factors with all elasmobranchs, with depth being a factor only for pelagic shark species. Most hobbyists are intrigued by pelagic (open-ocean) sharks like blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) or bonnethead sharks (Sphyrna tiburo), but a typical tank will not suffice for these obligate swimmers. They prefer a kidney-bean-, figure-eight-, or at least cylinder-shaped pool or tank to do well. These sharks need large straight-aways and long corners for energy conservation

CORAL Featured Video: Muck Diving in Lembeh

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bwPgi4S7AFs CREDIT: Bubble Vision – Nick Hope Muck diving in the Lembeh Strait. Weird and wonderful critters from north Sulawesi. This is the best footage from my 2006 trip with Two Fish Divers, featuring video from classic Lembeh Strait sites including Hairball, Aer Perang, TK (Teluk Kembahu), Aw Shucks, Police Pier, Angels’ Window, Nudi Falls, Nudi Retreat and Jahid. Editor: Divers are drawn to Lembeh Strait by the mind-boggling diversity of fishes and invertebrates that live on and in the dark, lava sand bottom.  This is a great look at the area covered by dive writer Werner Fiedler in the September/October 2013 Issue of CORAL.

How to take picture of our aquarium: photography course part II – The Pictures


The photo is of the beautiful tank of Paolo Marzocchi After the great success of the previous section that talked about the general theory of photography and the basics to get great photos, and I recommend you to read if you had not yet done to better understand what I write in this article. I’m going to talk strictly about how to get good photos in aquarium, with many practical examples.… More:


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